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About this time southern Spain (Iberia) is smelting copper as is northern Italy. Scandinavia that has no metals is trading for raw metal or finished goods to Britain and central Europe.
Sumu-Abum (2048-2035 B.C.) an Amorite Sheik established the Semite Amorite-Babylon Dynasty (2048-1770).
Amar-Sin (2046-2038 B.C.) son Shulgi became King of Ur, Iraq and the people continue to sing hymns and praises to the dead but divine Shulgi. He called himself the Spirit-god who gives life to the country, the God Sun, judge of the land. This is likely based on the Egyptian belief of the God Re. Nippur is the religious capital of Sumer and Ur is the political capital.
Reign King Mentuhotpe II (Nebhepetre or Sankhkare) (ca. 2061-2010 B.C.) (ca. 2040-2005 B.C.) of Thebes Dynasty 11 of Egypt conquered the northern Herakleopolitan state. He married Queen Ashait an Ethiopian or Negress. He ruled 121 years? Likely represents two kings or his reign started later?
Shu-Sin (2037-2029 B.C.) son Shulgi became King of Ur, Iraq. He defeated a number of Iranian rulers. He supported his son-in-law King of Simanum, southern Turkey quell a rebellion and brought the rebels to Sumer and built an internment camp for them.
Sumu-La-El (2036-2001) the Semitic-Amorite became the second King of the Amorite-Babylon Dynasty (2048-1770)
Shu-Sin (2037-2029 B.C.) is building fortresses west of the Euphrates to contain the nomadic Amorites who roamed the Syrian desert. These boors of the mountain know no house nor town, they dig up truffles, don't bend their knees to plant, eat raw meat and are not buried after death. These Amorite savages raid Sumerian villages.
To the West of the Euphrates River (Syria) lived the Amorites (Semitic-Sumerians) whom the Mesopotamia people considered uncouth. They held them in contempt and with disgust called them the boors of the mountains. Ibbi-Sins (2028-2004 B.C.) son Shu-Sin became King of Ur, Iraq. No sooner is he made King then the empire literally disintegrated.
Eshumunna is the first city state to break away from being a servant of the King of Ur (Iraq) and also resulted in a break from the Ur Spirit-god concepts. The Eshumunna called themselves servants of the Spirit-god Tishpak. It is significant that for a people to be free and independent they must have their own Spirit-god. They also changed the names of months and years. The official language became Akkadian rather than Sumerian. They however had Semitic or Elamite names indicating a merging of these two peoples. Some believe the Semitic Code of Law written in Akkadian likely originated about this time.
The Dynasty of Larsa (2025-1763 B.C.) is a city located between Uruk and Ur, Iraq. The first King of Larsa is Emisum (2004-1977).
The Amorites broke through the defenses and penetrated deep into the heart of Sumer. An Amorite Sheikh called Nablanum is crowned King of Larsa, only 25 miles from Ur. The Semitic Elamites (Persians) also invaded Sumer.
Lipit-Ishtar (1934-1924 B.C.) or (2017-2007) ruled Isin and is believed responsible for the Semitic Code of Law containing some 43 articles.
Si Shad Kang aka Ning ruled China (2007-1985 B.C.) he was the last of the Xia Dynasty. Shao Kang and his followers engaged in a battle against Han Zhuo, defeated and killed him, and restored the Xia Dynasty.
Ur attempted an alliance with the Amorites against the Semitic Elamites (Persians) but failed.
Reign King Mentuhotpe III (Sankhkare) (ca. 2010/2005-1993/1998 B.C.) Dynasty 11 of Egypt. He conducted an expedition of 3,000 men to Hammamat to make several large wells or water basins. The expedition went as far as Punt (Red Sea's Somali coast) returning with products of Punt and blocks of stone from Hammamat for royal statues.
The Great Semitic Empire of Akkadur (2334-2154) is a continuous reign of wars and rumors of war. King Naram-Sin of Akkad (2254-2218) represented the peak of the Semitic Akkad power and near the end of his reign he is said to be bewildered, confused, sunk in gloom, sorrowful and exhausted from overwhelming invasion. Akkad went into anarchy (2193-2168 B.C.) and is absorbed into the control of Ur by 2154 B.C. Akkad fell when Ur fell in 2004 B.C. This Sumero-Akkadian (Semitic) culture greatly influenced northern Mesopotamia and the Hurrians, Lullubi and Semitic Elamites (Persians). The Hurrians are believed to be Indo-Iranian in nature likely of Asian extraction. Proto-Indian seals, vases and ornaments found in Iraq testify to commercial relations with the Indus Valley.
The Semitic Elamites (Persians) are at the walls of the city of Ur (Iraq) under King Ibbi-Sin (2028-2004 B.C.). The walls are said to be as high as the shining mountains but the city is taken sacked and burned. Ur is destroyed and its people dispersed. This event marks the end of the Sumerian Nation. The division of the country into kingdoms erased all traces of the city-states and the principles upon which they are founded. Men, land and cattle ceased to belong to the temples and the Spirit-gods. Ur is destroyed, its people dispersed. The Semitic Elamites (Persians) are soon expelled from Iraq and the Semites would remain in power for the next fifteen hundred years. These Semite are Akkadians from Iraq or Western Semites Amorites. Waves of nomadic Semites continued to enter Iraq from the West. The Semite however would continue to squabble among themselves. The new Sumero-Akkadian-Amorite culture hardly differed from its Sumerian roots. The Amorite introduced personal ownership whereby the people, land and cattle no longer belonged to the Spirit-gods and High Priests. A merchant class appeared in Iraq. The city-Spirit-god belief began to decline in importance.
Most Semite people consider themselves descendents of the Sumerian Kings of Ur, Iraq. Abraham's family of Old Testament fame is believed by some to be in this exodus from the city of Ur to the promised land. This exodus is likely the result of the collapse of the Ur Kingdom. Others suggest the exodus is closer to 1,850 B.C. Abram's family however followed the ancient trade route north on the Euphrates River to Harranu (Harran, Turkey) a Semitic region. It is believed the family stayed in Turkey for two hundred years. It is noteworthy that each city in Iraq such as Ur had their own City Spirit-god. It is therefore not surprising that the Abraham tribe also had their own Spirit-god. Spirit-god to the Sumerians is used as a community political figure head to provide supernatural authority to the leaders.
The Shiites (Semitic-Arabic people) replaced the Sumerian in the Garden
of Eden (Iraq). It is not know if the practice of circumcision began
with this tribe or is a Sumerian practice. The earliest recorded
practice of circumcision is recorded in the Egyptian 5th dynasty.
Bronze technology that originated in Asia is exported to the Middle East
about this time.
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