The earliest Canadian Coureurs des Bois who likely produced Metis offspring
is from 1599 in Canada but
the first recorded Metis in North America is 1539 in New Mexico.
There is little doubt B.C. produced Metis long before the Spanish
B.C. HISTORY Return
to B.C. Index
DIRECTORY Return to MAIN HISTORY index
IN THE BEGINNING
You may ask why a British Columbia section? When I started my research in the early 1950's my quest was to research my ancestors from myself to the first one in Canada, so that precluded B.C. Naturally I collect trivia, so I recorded BC information in other sections, as I encountered them. As time evolved my scope expanded and someone e-mailed me and asked why I was ignoring BC history. I couldn't think of a good reason, so I copied all my BC data and created this section. My focus is on my Metis ancestry and I found very little information on the subject for BC. Then I realized there was very little Metis information for any area of America, so that excuse didn't hold up. The intent of my web site is not to provide genealogy information but to provide a starting point in history and location for folks to trace their ancestors. This section is a little different than my Alberta and Metis sections. BC or the Columbia District is very different than the rest of North America. My focus is on European Metis and not Russian, Hawaiian or other Mix Blood folks. I include some American Metis only because I hate to throw away information. I have a Indian section but I have not adequately research the rich Native cultures of BC. I have included the Iroquois especially the Mohawk speaking people because of their unique role in the fur trade and most were mixed with our Metis ancestors. I have not done justice to their role in opening the west. Keep in mind most names are posted in the year they entered the Columbia District and b-1820 can mean born or baptized in 1820. It's heart warming to see more and more people researching our ancestors.
British Columbia and Alberta straddled the equator about this time.
Vancouver Island was created as the result of Volcanic activity over a period of 200 million years starting approximately 360 million years ago south of the equator.
Vancouver Island is offshore Mexico. Vancouver Island is actually the top of a huge undersea mountain range. The mountain range that runs North - South on the Island is called the Beaufort Range.
80 million years ago Vancouver Island is beside present day California.
Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte Island composed of volcanic and sedimentary rock was scraped off the ancient Kula plate and became known by some as Wrangilla and plastered against the Continental margin and subducted under the North American plate.
During late Miocene and early Pliocene times (between 17 and 6 million years ago), one of the largest basaltic lava floods ever to appear on the earths surface engulfed about 63,000 square miles of the Pacific Northwest. Over a period of perhaps 10 to 15 million years lava flow after lava flow poured out, eventually accumulating to a thickness of more than 6,000 feet.
The subsidence of the crust produced a large, slightly depressed lava plain now known as the Columbia Basin or Columbia Plateau.
This flood basalt flowed from Idaho to the Pacific coast of Washington and
Mount Mazama and Mount Scott are forming as part of Crater Lake (Oregon)
Ocean levels are higher than present levels by nearly 5 meters.
Ocean levels are higher than present levels by nearly 5 meters.
Homo Sapiens is located at Dali, Shanxi Province of China. Musk oxen crossed the Bering straight from Asia to America then on to Greenland. There is no indication that man followed the musk oxen but this is surely a possibility.
Many now believe the peopling of the Americas occurred 50,000 to 100,000 B.C. Archeological evidence in South America is forcing a rethink of old beliefs.
The modern Domestic Dog species is believed to have evolved between 100,000 B.C. and 50,000 B.C. It is believed that more than evolution occurred during this time period. It is noteworthy that many consider the dog and Homo Sapiens arrived together into America.
Mammuthus Columbi is only found in America and is a likely a descendent of Mammuthus Meridionalis (mammoth).
Mammuthus Primigenius (mammoth) migrated from Asia to America. This would imply the continents are linked. It is interesting that Mammuthus Columbi did not migrate from America to Asia.
More modern researchers are now willing to accept the migration of man between Asia and America likely occurred over the next 50,000 years.
It is noteworthy that South America is dominated by blood type '0' with virtually no type 'A', 'B' or 'AB'. This lends some credibility to the aboriginal claims of having originated in America. It could also suggest migration took place to America before blood Type A which mutated in Europe about 20,000 B.C. and blood Type C which mutated about 10,000 B.C. in Asia. Blood type B is out of Africa. It's noteworthy that Homo Neanderthal man is type O blood and it has been proven they interbred with Homo Sapiens.
Twenty-five bone fragments believed altered by man are discovered in Old Crow. Many scientists are skeptical. Early man is however learning to cope with northern climates by producing fire at will, fabricating tents and winter clothing. He is hunting and following large animals such as the mammoth. During the next 70,000 years, deer, modern bear, beaver, reindeer and caribou migrated from Asia to America. Cows, horses, antelope and camels moved from America to Asia and Europe. This general migration must surely have included early man. Some believe this is the earliest possible migration date of man from Asia to America or visa a versa.
75,000 B.C. Lake Tobo, on the Sumatra Island of Indonesian is the site of a mega-volcano the largest known in the last 25 million years. It expelled 4,400 tons of ash in a matter of days covering 1/2 the globe. It is believed this caused more than 1,000 year ice age. Ocean temperatures cooled by 5°C within a few years, which normally takes 100,000 years to drop that much. Ash fell as far away as Saudi Arabia and sulfur covered the earth atmosphere for 2-3 years reflecting the sun from the planet. Snow and ice formed as a result and extended the sun reflection. It is estimated that 60% of human life was destroyed. It's a wonder we can find any remnants of man prior to this.
Mountain goats were roaming the B.C. interior, near Quesnel Forks of the Cariboo District.
Ocean levels were 90 meters lower than present levels.
Some scientists believe 'The People' (Paleo Peoples) began arriving in Canada via a coastal migration establishing colonies along the Pacific Coast. Others contend they could move south from Alaska and Yukon via ice-free corridors after being isolated from Asia due to the glacial retreat. Most however contend the theoretical corridor, if it existed, was impassable being biologically barren. Queen Charlotte Islands, Brooks Peninsula on Vancouver Island and other areas of Alaska and British Columbia remained forested during the ice ages. Some believe the 'The People' originated near the Lena River in Siberia. The People however believe they originated in south America at this time and started migrating north.
Most people believe American natives originated from Mongolian Asians. The Mongoloid people have a high frequency (11-25%) of type B blood. If this current theory is true then this genetic imprint must be found in the Americas. Central and South American people are exclusively type 'O' blood. Only the Eskimos (Inuit) of America have this Mongolian signature. Others argue that the Mongoloid people replaced an earlier culture whose remnants are the Ainu of Japan, Australian aborigines and the American People. The Ainu People however have 32% type 'B' blood and this marker is not evident in the Americas.
This began a period of glacial retreat and sea levels rose, severing Asia and Alaska that would last until 20,000 B.C. During part of this temporary warming period most of North America is free of glacial barriers and world temperatures are warmer than today. Some dental studies, genetic and molecular biology research suggests that man probably immigrated to America as early as 60,000 B.C. The first people are believed to be the Amerind speaking family of languages, the Paleo-People. This first migration is likely composed of numerous sub-migration groups. Some believe the Blackfoot, blood and Peican were among the earliest migration. Blood type 'A' is the highest (82%) in the world among these Peoples. The Lapps of northern Europe (Finland, Norway and Sweden etc.) have the next highest (63%) incidents of Type 'A' blood type. Hawaiians have 61% type 'A' blood type. It is noteworthy that Europe has a high incident of type 'A' blood where it is believed to have originated in 20,000 B.C.. We should not discount the possibility that the Blackfoot ancestors migrated to Europe carrying their type 'A' blood to that region. However it is important to remember the blood type A mutated first in Europe about 20,000 B.C. so they are more likely late comers. As our understanding of genetic mutation improves, hopefully we can resolve these anomalies.
The Aleut-Eskimo (Inuit) speaking peoples came as a second major group. The third migration wave consisted of the Na-Dene family of languages. These included Chipewyan, Slave, Yellowknife, Sarsee, Navajo, Apache and Pericu. That numerous migrations occurred is not in dispute, but little research has been done to trace the obvious migration from America to Asia. However the Navajo and Japanese are linked by a unique virus in their systems and this verifies DNA research. The Navajo, Chamorro and Flathead People have a unique type of retrovirus gene JCV only found in China and Japan and strongly supports migration by boat.. The Pericu who are closely related to the Navajo are known to use watercraft with double bladed paddles. They split from the Navajo in early history. About 50% of their diet was from the ocean.
The bison (buffalo) are thought to have migrated from Asia to America about this time. This would imply a land bridge between the contents.
Ocean levels were 90 meters lower than present levels.
Linguistic analysis by Johanna Nichols of Berkley suggests that the Native American language Amerind to have evolved into its' 155 families of languages in America would have to be introduced at least by 35,000 to 40,000 B.C.
There is growing evidence of an ocean migration of people from southeast Asia including Japan to the west coast of America. It is believed they followed the Japan current as no genetic evidence is present in northeast Asia to support a northern migration. Some suggest the Ainu of Japan migrated to central and south America between now and 11,000 B.C. via ocean travel.
Many conservatives have to admit that old estimates of People arrival in America are much too conservative and are willing to entertain arrival about this time.
It is believed the Algonquian and Athabascan speaking Peoples occupy the Columbia and Fraser rivers Plateau about this time before being driven south to Northwest California by the advancing ice about 22,000 B.C.
Some speculate that the European culture called Solutrean may have used water craft similar to Eskimo boats to navigate to North America. This speculation is based on similarities of Clovis points. It is noteworthy that the Solutrean culture either changed their tools or migrated before 19,000 B.C.
Jacques Cinq Mars concluded that bone from a cave near Bluefish River confirms there are people in the northwestern Yukon at this time. Bone tools are radiocarbon dated to 23,000 B.C. Mars believes the Bluefish Caves were used until 8,000 B.C.
Shan Hai Ching (Classic of the Mountains and Rivers) is sited as evidence of the Chinese visit to the Americas. Others suggest it is mythological and not geographical. Some believe the Shan Hai Ching represents a geographical survey conducted by Ta-Chang and Shu-Hai during the reign of the Emperor Yao about 23,000 B.C. Others suggest it was rewritten about 202 B.C. to 9 A.D. and half the writings are missing. It is noteworthy that mankind in American dates to 50,000 B.C. or earlier. The Quadra's Island aka Haida Gwaii also Fu Sang might have been occupied at this time as they were not glaciated.
Many conservatives suggest this timeframe or earlier is classified as the Early Migration to America likely down the coastal route. This is a 10,000 year addition to their old bench mark now called the Late Migration of 12,000 B.C. Linguists however say this is not early enough to create the various languages. They suggest the Early Migration is likely 35,000 B.C.
Genetic evidence suggests a second migration of People from Asia to America occurred between 20,000 to 18,000 B.C. The first migration occurred 35,000 B.C. or earlier. Some suggest that between 20,000 to 17,000 B.C. even the coastal route for migration was blocked by glaciers. They conclude and migration had to be via sea. DNA studies of the Northwest to California support a coastal migration with little genetic flow into the interior.
18,000 B.C. Glacial Lake Missoula contained over 500 cubic miles of water or 2 1/2 trillion tons of water, equivalent to the combined volumes of lakes Erie and Ontario. It formed in Montana behind an ice dam 1/2 mile high. When the Ice dam burst water exploded forth at a rate ten times the combined flow of all the rivers in the world. This towering mass of ice and water charged towards the Pacific at nearly sixth-five miles an hour, scouring everything in its path into a maze of canyons and coulees within three days, visible from space. To appreciate its force it created a waterfall 400 feet tall and 3.5 miles wide, in three days. (Niagara Falls, in comparison, measures one-mile wide, with a depth of 165 feet.) . More than 2,000 square miles of scrubland were carved out. The Scrublands and Columbia Valley were carved out and any living animals or natives were destroyed as a wall of water 800-900 feet tall covered the land. 16,000 square miles of Washington was ravaged carving gorges, some almost 1,000 feet deep. This super flood is believed to be repeated in 13,000 B.C. and as late as 10,000 B.C. Some suggest it may have repeated itself every 50 to 100 years.
Ocean levels were a staggering 140 meters (460 feet) below current ocean levels. Since 50,000 B.C. to about 6,000 B.C. ocean levels have been on average 40 meters below current levels. Most of Haida Gwaii and Quadra's Island were main land connected. It is most likely the Bering Strait was also a land bridge. I am not sure ocean levels are accurate as they usually don't consider the rising and falling of the land or sediment flows before and after ice dams.
On Vancouver Island at the Port Eliza Cave, goat bones and plant remains verify early man occupied this area. It also supports the boat migration theory rather than the land migration theory.
Some believe the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) was first occupied about this time and they called them Xhaaidlagha Gwaayaai which means Islands at the Boundary of the World. The Islands are 90 km from the mainland and can be seen on a clear day. Their arrival therefore had to be via boats. The Haida would later name the 150 plus Islands as Haida Gwaii meaning the Islands of the People. Others called it the Haida Place. It is believed the Haida arrived 8,000 to 13,000 B.C. The ocean levels on the Islands fluctuated by up to 50 feet and did not stabilize until 3,000 B.C. making it difficult to find archeological evidence. It is noteworthy that Haida Gwaii was ice free during the ice age as were many of the islands of southern Alaska. Other coastal areas were ice free 12,000 to 11,000 B.C. maybe earlier. The low water levels produced great grass lands to support mammoth, mastodon and bison that were found on Haida Geaii and Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island).
A mammoth humerus from southern Vancouver Island has been dated to 17,000 YBP,
A bison find on Vancouver Island suggests human hunters killed bison on the Island peninsula Royal Oak, Victoria.
Some contend this is the first Giant Flood of Montana, Idaho, Washington and Oregon when Glacial Lake Missoula ice dam broke sending 500 cubic miles of water to the Pacific in 48 hours. Others contend these have been going on since 80,000 B.C. The devastation however was profound, as this is more water than Lake Erie and Ontario combined. In some places there was a 1/2 mile high wall of water destroying the people and artifacts down the Columbia River. J. Harlen Brentz (1882-1981) first proposed the Giant Flood theory in 1922 to explain the geological evidence but was laughed at by the Geological Society. This would surely distort ocean level data. Willamette Valley was flooded as far south as Eugene, Oregon destroying all life but laying down silt that made this a very fertile valley.
Fort Rock Cave (Oregon) indicates human occupation.
The Fluted Clovis point spearhead used to hunt mammoths appears all over North America. Clovis man has been found in the Peace River, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Washington, and Mexico. This unprecedented form of stone point has the conservatives puzzled, as it requires a very rapid spreading to fit their hypothesis. Conservatives suggest the Clovis Point likely only dates to 11,500 B.C. Another problem with this technology is that few Clovis points are discovered in Alaska and no Clovis points in Siberia except those dated 6,300 B.C. at Uptar which suggests an American to Asia migration. All evidence supports a south to north migration of this technology. The Clovis technology may have migrated from America to Asia. Many conservative scientists resort to science fiction type theories to explain these and other anomalies.
Segments of the Coast Salish people-the ancestors of the Squamish, Burrard, Tsleil-Waututh, Musqueam (Xw'muthk'i'um), Tsawwassen, Coquitlam (Kwayhquitlam), Katzie and Semiahmoo Indian bands-arrive English Bay. They seem to be quite satisfied with the beaches teeming with seafood-they named English Bay Ayyulshun, which means 'soft under feet'. And they liked the forests teaming with wildlife. Not to mention that nearby is the mouth of a big river (Fraser River) emptying into a vast ocean where big, fat, silvery salmon swam by six months out of every year.
Mount St. Helens erupted leaving a time line of pre and post giant floods of Glacial Lake Missoula that left extensive marks in Montana, Idaho, Washington and Oregon. It is believed that 12 giant floods actually occurred some say between 13,300 B.C. to 9,700 B.C. while others contend they occurred 80,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C. Most agree many super floods occurred between 18,000 B.C to 10,000 BC. Evidence of early man would be destroyed.
Some believe the Proto-Polynesians are living Haida Gwaii and are called the Old Haida. Speculation is they arrived on the Kuroshio Current from Asia.
Pre-Clovis People likely Algonquian and Athabascan speaking Peoples occupied Oregon at Fort Rock Cave in south central Oregon. They used milling stones, projectile points and scrapers.
St. Mary Reservoir suggests Clovis Man is migrating northward hunting the little horse. This lends support to the ocean migration theory and discredits the north south ice free corridor theory.
The Ushki Lake People of Russia have long been pointed to as the originators of the Clovis point but this has been disproved as the Clovis point in in New Mexico at the same times as these people camped here.
Some suggest the Old Haida arrived the Queen Charlotte Islands during the low sea level from 11,000 to 9,000 B.C. or possibly earlier. The Hecate Strait between Haida Gwaii and the mainland was a dry land during this period. Haida Gwaii is a land of intrigue, a land of mists, a land of eagles and ravens, carpeted with lush rainforests, no wonder the People stayed. There are over 600 Haida archaeological sites identified in B.C. to date. The Haida numbered 10,000 at their peak but by 1921 there was only a few hundred remaining. Haida oral tradition suggests Haida Gwaii escaped glacialization and science verifies this tradition. If this is true, then it is likely the Haida must have arrived much earlier.
Ocean levels began to raise some 130 meters cutting off the Canadian West Coast migration plains thereby isolating pockets of early man. Evidence of flooding is not only found on the sea floor, it is also evident on the Queen Charlottes Islands and in native legends. The flooding is believed gradual, as Current Ocean levels are not attained until about 9,500 B.C. Other evidence suggests the flooding is not gradual and may have occurred in a ten year period..
10,000 B.C. Indisputable evidence of Canada's repopulation is evidenced. Some however believe Canada had a population throughout the Ice Age.
Some believe the Last super floods from Glacial Lake Missoula and Lake Bonneville occurred about this time clearing the Columbia Valley of people. It is noteworthy that the Scrublands of Eastern Washington, Columbia Valley and Willamette Valley were never glaciated and likely populated 18,000 to 10,000 B.C.
It is believed that the Migration from Europe to America occurred about this time period. This was deduced by genetic markers among the Ojibwa Peoples. Its possible the migration was from America to Europe as the gene is not found in Asia.
The Northwest Coast of America, namely Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon host two distinct cultural traditions, one derived from the north, the other from the south.
The Oregon People include Bannock, Chinook, Klamath, Modoc and Nez Perce.
The Queen Charlottes are populated by the Proto Athapascan Haida and Vancouver Island by the Nootka and Waukeshan. This likely implies that these and earlier peoples are seafarers.
The last of the great Glacial Lake Missoula floods are believed to have occurred about this time. The violent flooding occurred in Montana, Idaho, Washington and Oregon. It is believed these massive floods occurred at least 12 times. This lake was bigger than Lakes Erie and Ontario combined containing over 500 cubic miles of water. The lakes path was block with a glacier and when it broke it took only 48 hours to drain. People, animals and artifacts in its path were destroyed. Willama (Willamette Valley, Oregon), and Washington was cleared of animals and people.
The Pacific North West Coast People between 9,000 to 5,000 B.C. have no fluted point which suggests they were not influenced by the Paleo-Indian cultures. It would appear that these people have a culture more aligned with Mexico or Asia. The culture appears to be based on a culture of, heredity - wealth - prestige. The Paleo-People of North America culture was based on a caring - sharing - philosophy. The Coast Peoples are paternalistic where as the Paleo-People are matriarchal. The Coast People have a strong chief tradition whereas the Paleo-People used shared leadership, no chiefs. The Coast People have a strong need for social rank whereas the Paleo-People didn't see a need for this, it was more based on skills for social rank. The Coast People held slaves distinct and apart, the Paelo-People a slave would be adopted into the tribe with equal rights and responsibilities. The interesting thing about the Coastal People is the potlatch which appears to put the caring/sharing philosophy into a type of religious ceremony rather than being incorporated into everyday life. If this culture came from Mexico you would expect it to influence the California culture, which it didn't. The other alternative is they were influenced by wave after wave of Asian immigration after 5,000 B.C. The Coastal People made a major cultural change about 5,000 B.C. It is noteworthy that the tribes in the north, kinship is passed down through women, mid coast tribes were split on kinship between men and women and in the south kinship is passed through the men.
Archaeologists found signs of human occupation at digs at Nami, north of Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) and at Lawn Point on Graham's Island (Queen Charlottes).
Charles Lake Cave, near Fort St. John is occupied by Paleo bison hunters.
Some believe the Haida have occupied the Queen Charlotte Islands at about this time. Others suggest it was 500 years later. The Haida tradition suggests they were preceded by an earlier population called the Old Haida that were absorbed into the Haida culture. It would appear the Haida arrived via boat as the Hecate Strait is flooded at this time. There was a land bridge 11,000 to 9,000 B.C. so it's possible the earlier People arrived during that period. The Haida called the Queen Charlotte Islands Haida Gwaii meaning out land or the Peoples Land. It is noteworthy that the Haida village Ninstints on Skungwai Island is declaired a world heritage site as it escaped glaciations. This makes them biologically unique area in Canada. It is believed all the Haida Gwaii was free of glaciations.
The Haida have been living Queen Charlotte Islands since about this time. The Haida culture peaked at about 30,000 people and after contact with Europeans the population dropped to 600 members by 1915. The Haida had a humorous saying "When the tide goes out, the table is set" because food was never a problem for the Haida People.
In Saanich Inlet 16 km north of Victoria, Vancouver Island deep sea core samples suggest that within a few years the temperature plummeted from modern conditions to North Pole conditions and remained locked into deep freeze for several centuries.
The Stó:lô People are on the Fraser River.
The Gitxsan (people of the River of Mist) a matrilineal society, living along the Skeena River (British Columbia), dates to this period.
On Calvert Island on the west coast of Vancouver Island was discovered what they think is the legendary winter village of Luxvbalis,occupied by likely the ancestors of the Heiltsuk and Wukinuxu people.
People are camping at the Dalles (Oregon-Washington) a salmon rich area.
Genetic evidence suggests a forth migration of People to America occurred about this time from Europe. It is believed the first three migrations occurred from Asia, namely #1 at 35,000 B.C. plus, #2 at 20,000 B.C., #3 at 13,000 B.C. This migration of the Druze, Italians and Finnish Peoples of Europe is based on common genes that merged with the Ojibwa Peoples. These genes are not found in Asiatic Peoples. If this research holds true then: some of the Ojibwa are likely located on the east coast of America at this time, and Europeans migrated to America about this time OR Americans migrated to Europe about this time.
It is believed the People of the Pacific Northwest (Oregon/Washington/British Columbia) were highly sophisticated at this time with cultural attributes usually associated with city states, like hierarchy of status, techniques to harvest and store large quantities of food, specialized occupations, a widespread system of trade, large permanent houses. They also had little conflict with neighboring bands.
The Valley of the Rocks, B.C. near the Alberta border was the largest landslide in North America, it was 30 times larger than the 1965 Hope Slide, B.C..
The People of the Northwest Coast include Haida, Tsimshian, Nuxalk (Bella Coola), Northern Wakashan, Kwakwakw'wakw (Kwakuitl), Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka) and Coastal Salish. They all shared a similar social and cultural framework.
A fifty-year-old Caucasoid man not related to the aboriginal people is discovered near Kennewick, Washington on the Columbia River. Kennewick Man found on the Columbia River is definitely not American Indian some claim and is believed to date about this time and appears more closely related to the Ainu of Northern Japan, than Mongolian, Native American or Euro-American. Others suggest he is closer to Polynesian in nature. He had a stone spear point buried in his hip. This is a fascinating find as preliminary evidence suggests the remains are not American-Indian in nature and more typically Polynesian or even Caucasian. The Natives of Washington claimed the bones for reburial and are using this as a test case to highlight the history of shabby treatment to earlier American Peoples (Indians) by archeologists and anthropologists in the past. Failure to adequately analyze this significant find would be a loss to understanding our Native culture. In 2004 the US appeals court overruled the objections of the Colville, Umatilla, Yakama, Nez Perce and Wanapum peoples to study the Kennewick man. It is one of the oldest human skeletons found on the American continent.
At Mission, British Columbia an old hearth is unearthed dating back to this period. Eastern Oregon obsidian is being traded into the Vancouver area. Fishing on the Frazer River in B.C. is well established. The Salish speaking people are located at Mission but would eventually spread to Washington and Oregon later to be called the Columbia District. Some suggest their ancestral home was Deming (Washington).
The Comox Valley is populated by the Pentlatch and Comox bands of the Salishan People. Komoux means land of plenty. The Indians were living on the site of the St. Paul Mission (1845-1869) in the Columbia Vallry.
Freshly exposed and perfectly preserved tree stumps, some with their bark, were discovered in 2007, that date to this period. The stumps were found at the foot of a melting glacier in Garibaldi Provincial Park about 60 kilometers north of Vancouver. The stumps were still rooted to their original soil. Koch said historical warming cycles never shrunk Overload enough to release these trunks from their primeval deep-freeze until now. Johannes Koch said "his stump discovery adds to the growing number of scientific findings that point to man-made causes of what he called the "dramatic change" in global climate over the past 150 years." The fact that trees were growing in 7,000 B.C. in this location, suggests the climate was much warmer than 2007. I guess this warming cycle, that allowed forest growth, must be caused by human camp fires!
Gore Creek Man is discovered in B.C. and he is significantly different than the early American People.
In Fort Rock Cave, Oregon fifty pairs of sandals made of shredded sagebrush bark marked the remains of a sandal factory. Other artifacts included baskets, fabric, string and matting, some of the earliest examples of these crafts in the world.
The Pacific coast peoples of British Columbia, Washington and Oregon are a mixing of Plateau and Arctic peoples. The Paleo Arctic people settled the Aleutian Island Anangula verifying an effective marine adaptation. This island can only be reached by boat. Some speculate that both the Eskimo (Inuit) and Athapaskin cultural tradition is a Paleo Arctic tradition. There is little doubt extensive contact took place over the next two thousand years as a general warming trend encouraged a northern expansion.
The Queen Charlotte Islands of British Columbia are believed occupied by the People at this time. It is believed these Islands escaped glaciations and might have harbored human life much earlier than suspected.. Some plants here are only found in Japan or Ireland.
The Kwakwakawakw (Kwakiutl) are linguistically related to the Nootka People are living in what is called the Fort Rupert Coast. Fort Rupert (1849-1877) Coast includes from the Smith Inlet to the north, to Cape Mudge in the south, west to Quatsino and east to Knight Inlet.
The Okanagan People are believed to have arrived from the south and spread up the valley to Revelstoke, B.C..
Salmon fishing in the Columbia and Frazer River system continues with indications in the Frazer Lochnore Nesikep site that not only supported the Plateau dwellers but contained Arctic tool kits until 4,000 B.C. The People hunted deer and collected camas and kous roots and berries.
5,700 B.C. Mount Mazama (Crater Lake, Oregon) erupted sending a cloud of ash into Canada as far as Alberta and Saskatchewan. The collapsed calderas filled with water to create Crater Lake, that is the deepest lake in America at 1,932 feet.
The natives of Willama (Willamette Valley, Oregon) constructed 'Camas (Camassia quarnish) Ovens' to cook their harvests.
About 100 kilometers west of Quesnel, B.C. a volcanic eruption occurred leaving what is called the Nazko cone.
The Pacific Coastal People made a fundamental cultural change about this time gathering into larger groups and building larger houses. It is not clear if their beliefs and values also changed or carried forward from 9,000 B.C. Some believe the Coastal People retained their cultural traditions from this time until European contact with little change.
The Ainu of Esan site, Hokkaido use a Bone Spoons Epi-Jomon with a killer whale on its handle; these same spoons are found in British Columbia and among the Siberian peoples.
Some believe the Nuu'chah'nulth (Nootka) people of Vancouver Island are whaling.
Mount Mazama, Oregon, a 12,000 foot volcano blew its top to become Crater Lake, in southern Oregon. It released 12 cubic miles ( 50 cubic km) of magma sending rocks as far away as Saskatchewan, Canada. The People called Crater Lake the home of Llao an evil spirit so the place was avoided. Ash was deposited over a wide area including Cypress Hills (Alberta/Saskatchewan) killing the berry crop and driving the People from the Hills and they did not return for 600 years. The eruption caused about 3 years of extremely cold weather.
The Klamath Lake area of southern Oregon contained the Klamath culture that lasted to historic times.
Some suggest the Proto-Athabaskan-Eyak People arrived Alaska and Yukon.
The Polynesians originated in south east Asia near Taiwan and have no genetic links to either Indonesians, Melanesians or Micronesians. It is believed the proto-Polynesians originated from the Chinese culture about 9,500 B.C. They do have a genetic link to the Haida of Haida Gwaii, B.C. It is believed they sailed to B.C. about this time in bamboo boats (rafts).
Artifacts of the pre-Dorset peoples
began appearing in Alaska and would spread across the Canadian north.
At Namu, south central British Columbia the coast dwellers hunted wapiti (elk), deer and seal, collecting shellfish and caught salmon and other fish.
Some believe that Asians established trading posts around the North Pacific rim based upon ancient Chinese coins incorporated into British Columbia artifacts. The Asian technology of sailing is sufficient for return trips across the Pacific at this time. The Athapascan speaking people are believed to have originally emigrated from Asia in skin boats about 3,000 to 1,000 B.C.
Between 3,000 to 2,500 B.C. Epi-Jomon (bone-spoons) of Ainu origin have been found in Siberia and British Columbia. The Ainu are a European type culture from Japan. Their origins are not known but they were a sea going people early in their development before being suppressed by the later arriving Japanese. Some of their boats were 50 feet long about half the size of European ships of the fifteenth century. Basket and mask making by the Ainu may have influenced the cultures of the Pacific West Coast People and the Eskimo (Inuit).
The Kootenay (meaning water people) lived on the shores of the Kootenay Lakes starting 3,000 to 2,000 B.C..
The Haida on Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands) are in significant numbers (8,000? or more)
The last eruption of Mount Mazama's Crater Lake (Oregon) occurred about this time. Another eruption is long over due.
Emperor Huungti of China minted a coin and in 1882 James Dean, a United States Naturalist, discovered thirty of these coins in De Foe (Deorse?) Creek, Cassiar District of British Columbia about twenty-five feet below the compacted surface.
Yuquot a Mowachaht (Nootka) Village dates from this time.
Cjinese Emperior Yao dispatched two surveyors to explore the known world and beyond. Ta Chang and Shu Hai survived the ordeal and was published as Shan Hai Ching (The classic of the Mountains and Rivers) published in 32 volumes of which 1/2 survived. It is believed they reached America.
Yu-cluti-ahts meaning safe harbour now called Ucluelet, (Vancouver Island) was settled about this time.
A freestanding long house is discovered at Hatzic Rock near Mission B.C. being the oldest ever found in British Columbia. Also found are about three hundred stone axes. Some believe this is a factory site of axe manufacturing or assembly.
Yuquot (Nootka Sound), Friendly Cove, Vancouver Island, B.C. is believed to be continuality occupied by the Nuu-chah-nulth people from this time until modern times.
The Nuu-chaf-nulth (Nootka) a Wakashan speaking People have occupied the Nootka Sound for over 4,000 years and their name means the People of all along the Mountains or for short the West Coast People. The largest tribe of the Nootka are the Tla-o-qui-aht (Calayoquot) who claim to be originally from Kennedy Lake, east of Ucluelet, Vancouver Island. Ucluelet means Safe Harbour and was named by the Nuu-chah-nulth. Ocean swells near Ucluelet and Barkley Sound produce swells of 40 feet or more. The author can attest to this phenomena as I got caught in a forty foot swell in Barkley Sound while fishing in an 18 foot deep hull boat. The first lighthouse at Ucluelet was swept away by a tidal wave in 1912. These Peoples are noted for their ocean going canoes and may represent some of the People who migrated up and down the Pacific coast to populate the Americas. These People range from Cape Scott (North Vancouver Island) to past Ozette Lake (Washington, U.S.A.) in the south. Prior to European contact they had friendly relations with all other Peoples in the region and intermarried in all directions. They numbered about 30,000 people at contact and were reduced to a low of 2,000 by 1930's. The large ocean-going canoe was used to transport the whole village from summer quarters to the more sheltered winter quarters. The canoe was also used for whaling and fishing.
The Hawaiian tradition suggests their ancestors first came from the east, Haida Gwaii and southern Alaska. The say the western Polynesians came later.
The Dorset peoples arrived in northwestern Canada and lived in sod houses.
Until this time the population of western Canada's coast line has remained fairly constant but at this time there appears to be a sudden build-up in population..
It is believed the Proto-Athabaskan People and the Proto-Eyak People separated as a culture.
The Peoples of British Columbia's Northwest coast are using Nephrite jade as a trade item.
It is believed the Proto-Athabaskan People and the Proto-Eyak People separated as a culture.
There is a sudden worsening of conditions in northern Canada weather after the long warming trend that began before 3,000 B.C. Despite these adverse conditions dentalium shells from Victoria (B.C.) are being traded as far north as Alaska.
The Emperior of the Chin Dynasty sent 500 bamboo rafts in search of the elixir of life on the Kuroshio current to America and non returned.
It is believed that totem poles were first used on the West Coast of Canada.
Mt. Meager, B.C. about 150 km north of Vancouver erupted between now and 350 BC.
Mount Rainier, (Washington) experienced a major eruption this year.
Emperor Chhin Shih Huang Ti dispatched explorer Hsu Fu to the Pacific Ocean in search of magical beings and strange things among the mysterious, undiscovered islands of the immortals. Hsu Fu returned years later with news of astounding success and said the wizard of the island would give the emperor immortality if he would send young men of good birth and breeding together with apt virgins and workmen of all the trades. The Emperor is enthralled and built Hsu Fu a vast, richly provisioned fleet, bearing three thousand men and women, and sent them to sea. Ssuma Chhien the historian writing in 90 B.C. noted Hsu Fu must have found some calm and fertile plain, with broad forests and rich marches, where he made himself king. At any rate, he never came back to China. Many believe they settled in British Columbia to become part of the Canadian Pacific Peoples. Others suggest they settled in Central America.
Shan Hai Ching (Classic of the Mountains and Rivers) is sited as evidence of the Chinese visit to the Fu Sang (Americas). Others suggest it is mythological and not geographical. Some believe the Shan Hai Ching represents a geographical survey conducted by Ta-Chang and Shu-Hai during the reign of the Emperior Yao about 23,000 B.C. Others suggest it was rewritten about 202 B.C. to 9 A.D. and half the writings are missing. It is noteworthy that Asians writings are held in scorn but European writings are esteemed. It's possible our culture has a significant built in cultural bias.
Genetic, cultural and tradition studies link the first Hawaiians and the Haida of Canada. They share many common tools and artifacts. Both have no type B blood and high rates of type A blood. Hawaii tradition says they first came from a northern direction, Welau Lani, the land of Kalonakikeke (Alaska). The Polynesians arrived Haida Gwaii, B.C. about 4,000 B.C. The departure for Hawaii is over 200 B.C. to 200 A.D. long before the Polynesians arrived from the west.
Between 458 and 566 during the period of 'Great Brightness' there are five Chinese Buddhist priests in Fu Sang (British Columbia) and they are recorded in the Cathay Year Book of that era and they called the land Fu Sang which means 'The Extreme East' and they recorded it was 'wonderful'.. Some believe Fu Sang means the extreme east (others suggest it’s the name of a tree), and the notation went on to say it is a wonderful place. The natives made cloth from the bark of a giant tree and extracted oil from fish. Reports suggest they went on to explore down the coast to California. Hwui Shan (Hui Shen or Hoei-Shin) (Huishen) a Buddhist priest claimed to have traveled 7,000 miles East from China then went inland 350 miles to the Grand Canyon then on to Mexico. There is little doubt that the Chinese are exploring Fu Sang (America) during the next half century especially in the Mexico region. Hwui Shan (Huishen) returned in 499 to report the people of Fu Sang (America) had a written language and made paper from the bark of the fu sang tree. Their cities have no walls as they do not fight in that country. A Chinese anchor is discovered off the coast of California. Others suggest Fu Sang refers to Japan, others say it is Mexico. It is believed they traveled down from the Pacific Northwest including British Columbia. Some believe these expeditions are the first visit to Vancouver Island. Some suggest Hwui Shan crossed the Pacific first to Mexico then followed the coast north to Alaska before returning home.
It is reported that Hwui Shan (Hu-shen, Heoi-shin or Hoei-shin) sail to Fu Sang (America) from China this year. It is not know if he is part of the five men Pikiu (Sanskrit, Bhikshu) expedition to Fu Sang in 485. They reported traveling across forests and high mountains. The Fu Sang people had a system of law and order. The Pikiu party taught the Buddhist religion to the people. Mayan tradition called these people Kukulcan who had neither wife nor child and came from the West.
The Haida Peoples of British Columbia considered the Ocean as a great salt river, the current of which would probably lead somewhere. Some believe they may have voyaged to the Hawaiian Islands. The culture of the Canadian west coast Peoples remains fairly constant between now and first contact with Asian and European peoples.
Hoei Shin (Hui Shen), a Chinese Buddhist Monk, described a expedition to Fusant (Fusang), a land to the east that resembled present-day British Columbia. It is believed he departed Nanking during the Sung Dynasty (420-479) and returned during the Ch'i Dynasty (479-502). Mention of this expedition are recorded in Liang Dynasty (502-557); and in 629 by Yao Silian (557-637). The People of Fusang do not live according to the laws of Buddha.
The Nez Perce culture, that included a belief in God, is believed to have originated north of the mouth of the Columbia River where they began working their way upstream. Many consider this culture as a very peaceful loving People who were exploited in the future by a very savage United States culture both individually and collectively by their Government.
Budast Monks led by Hoo Shen sailed 7,000 miles East from China and 350 miles on land to the Grand Canyon. They then explored south to central Fu Sang (America). Mayan artifacts clearly indicate a Chinese influence in support of this Chinese report. This expedition likely passed through the Pacific Northwest. Some place this expedition earlier or later.
The Hopi (Peaceful People) migrated to the land of Rock and Ice. Rock art in Grotto Canyon near Canmore, (British Columbia) appears to support this mythology.
About this time or earlier along the Babine River about 100 kilometers from Smithers, B.C. in the interior is a village of 8-10 long houses. The village still existed to modern memory but was abandoned about 1800.
The ancestral bands break from southern Athapascan groups and some migrate north towards British Columbia and Alaska.
The Athapascan (Na-Dene) people are believed to have originally emigrated from Asia in skin boats about 3,000 to 1,000 B.C. Some argue the migration was earlier about 10,000 to 8,000 B.C. The Athapascan from Canada during the period 800 to 1,000 had reached southern United States to become the Apache (meaning enemy or alien), Navajos, Karankawa, Coahuiltec, Pericu, Monqui and Seri. Avonlea and Besant cultures appear to have evolved into the side-notched point or Old Woman's point.
Others suggest the Athapascan or Na-Dene arrived in successive migrations from 800 to 1000. The Dene are usually only associated with the Northern Canadian Peoples
The Athapascan group of People in Alaska and Yukon break and a sub group called Apache that migrate south through Alberta to the southwest United States. This theory appears to contradict the northern migration theory? The Apache oral tradition also appears to conflict with this theory that suggests a northern migration.
It is believed that the West Coast Athabaskans existed about this time. They were separated into 3 major tribes that are now extinct. They reached as far south as California and are believed to have numbered 7,000 People before the white people arrived.
The Nicola lived among the Thompson River People.
The Kwalhioqua who lived in Willapa Hills, in southwestern Washington.
The Clatskanie, likely an offshoot of the Kwalhioqua who crossed into Oregon before 1775 and resided about 70 miles up the Columbia River.
Mount Rainier in Washington experienced a major eruption this year. Mount Adams experienced a series of minor eruptions.
A massive earth quake hit the Olympic Peninsula, Pacific Northwest.
It is reported that many Jewish soldiers with Kublai Khan, in his ill-fated attack on Japan, were dispersed by what the Japanese have ever since referred to as 'The Devine Wind', and their junks drifted to the mouth of the Naas River, Fusang (British Columbia).
Chinlac, an hour west of Prince George, B.C. was discovered a Chinese coin dated 1200.
During the period of 1210 to 1330 are found clay amulets, beads, pots, pipes, pendants and bowls on the Columbia River and are not attributed to the Chinook People. It is believed these artifacts are clearly Japanese or Chinese in design but locally made as kilns were also discovered..
Some claim that many Jewish soldiers are with the Mongol Kublai Khan (1260-1294). On one of the Mongol ill-fated attacks on Japan of 1274 or 1281 they are dispersed by what the Japanese refer to as the 'Divine Wind'. It is reported that the storms encountered by these unskilled seamen drove their junks to the mouth of the Naas River in British Columbia. Some contend these missionaries may have carried the word of God, the Supreme Being to Fu Sang (North America). This appears unlikely as the Natives of the Fu Sang (Americas) had no word for sin. They may however have simply rejected that part of theology as not being compatible with their own tradition. They did however clearly understand good and evil both in words and actions.
The Sarcee, who call themselves the Tsuu T'ina People, originally lived in northern Mexico, California, Oregon and finally Alberta. The Sarcee legend tells how once a young Beaver leader shot an arrow through a dog owned by one of the braves in his band. He is so enraged that he swore vengeance against the leader. The tribe split into two factions and nearly a hundred Braves died. A truce is called and an agreement reached where the young leader and all his friends left the tribe. They carried away the new name of Sarcee, meaning, not good. The splitting of the tribe is not good but necessary to keep the peace.
The Sub-arctic peoples of the three Prairie Provinces is dominated by the Athapascan speaking peoples that covered Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories and central British Columbia. These are the Slave, Sarcee, Yellowknife, Dogrib, Hare, Beaver and Chipewyan. They are believed late comers to Canada from Siberia. The Inuit influences their culture and language. The Algonquian-speaking people made up the balance of the Sub-Arctic being the Wood, Swampy and Plains Cree. The Cree called the Slave peoples Awokanak that means slaves.
A mysterious colony of potters settled in the valley between Vancouver Lake and the Columbus River. The Colony disappeared by 1700. The "Asian Pot Wreck" 15 nautical miles off the mouth of the Juan de Fuca Strait hauled up Asian pots, and numerous articles of trade of Japanese/Korean/Chinese origin.
The Colville Valley of the Columbia Valley was occupied (1400-1800) by the Shwayia (Colville, Kettle, and Lake bands).
Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) dispatched 317 ships with 27,870 men, women and children to collect tribute from the barbarians from beyond the seas. The Chinese Emperor wanted 'All under heaven' to be civilized in Confucian Harmony. Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) personally conducted 7 voyages of exploration between 1405 to 1433, the first being 62 of his 317 ships this year in search of the former emperor who fled likely toward Fu Sang (America). Each fleet of ship was self contained including onboard gardens. Chinese artifacts discovered in Fu Sang (America) suggests some of the Chinese fleet landed on both the east and west coast of the Fu Sang (Americas). The largest flag ship was 400 feet in length with a beam of 160 feet. The main fleet sailed to Calicut, India and back (1405-1407) in trade.
Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435) made a 2nd trading trip to India returning in 1409.
The 3rd Chinese expedition consisted of 48 ships and 30,000 men and the King of Ceylon (Sri Lanka became aggressive and was defeated and taken as prisoner back to China. This trip was (1409-1411).
At Neakahnie Beach, Oregon, Ming porcelain is found on netarts sand spit. A pulley is dated to 1410 and it is believed a Chinese junk went down off shore based on other Chinese records.
Parts of a ships wooden hull is discovered off the coast of Sacramento, California
The 4th expedition consisted of 63 ships, 28,560 men and sailed to the Persian Gulf at Hormuz, then south to Mozambique. This trip was (1412-1415)
The 5th expedition (1417-1419) repeated the 4th expedition.
A Chinese map of 1418 clearly shows Australia, North and South America. This appears to be compiled on the 4th expedition of Admiral Cheng Ho (1371-1435).
1421 6th Chinese expedition (1421-1422) repeat of 4th & 5th expedition but the whole fleet was likely not committed to this routine run.
Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435), a Muslim eunuch, commanded the Chinese navy that consisted of 317 ships with 28,000 to 38,000 sailors. It is believed his navy explored Fu Sang (America) on several occasions. China at this time had the largest ships and the biggest fleet in the world. The flag ship was 475 feet long, by 193 feet wide, European ships by contrast were about 100 feet long. Europe at this time was considered an uncultured backwater place by the Chinese with nothing of value in trade. Admiral Zheng the explorer circumnavigated the world for Emperor Yong Le visiting 30 countries returning October 23, 1427. About this time the Rhode Island Tower believed to be built by Chinese colonists that were abandoned due to a ship wreck. The Tower is believed to be a light house likely to signal the Chinese navy. The total fleet is recorded to have visited 1,000 countries.
The Netarts Sand Pits in Oregon contained porcelain from the Chinese Emperor Zhu Di's reign which is the same time period of Zheng He around the world trip.
Vancouver Island appears on a map of 1507 and it is called Colonia, Chinois. The Squamish people reported the Chinese visited Vancouver Island before the Europeans.
Chinese artifacts keep appearing along the Pacific Coast of North America in places like Tofino and Ucluelet on Vancouver Island. Some suggest they are from the period 1250 to 1421. 1680 to 1700 is more likely but who knows?
The 7th and final expedition of Admiral Zheng He aka Ma He (Cheng Ho) (1371-1435), with 100 ships and 27,500 men sailed for Malacca, Siam, Australia and America. The trip was (1431-1433).
Fu Sang (American) Peoples legend suggests a shipwreck occurred on Tillamook Beach (Neahkahnie), Oregon. This likely suggests there were survivors who were absorbed into the local culture.
The Chase burial site of the Shuswap on the north bank of the South Thompson River, three miles west of Chase is believed used 1400 to 1750, it contains samples of non-aboriginal copper believed to precede the Europeans by 50 years or 1750. Several sites between Lytton and Lillooet have similar artifacts as Chase. Others suggest the time frame is 1200 to 1800.
Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) voyage to America in June 1497, who laid the foundation that the new discoveries are a continent and not islands on the way to India, in a book first published in 1507. Some believe some of his trips are fabrications of earlier accounts by others.
Some suggest that this year Spanish sailors returning from the Philippines encountered the Ouragon (Oregon Territory) coast. It wasn't until 1765 that the word Ouragon was used to describe the Oregon Territory. It is believed a Spanish Galleon sunk near Nehalem Bay, Oregon with a cargo of Asian beeswax that keeps washing up on Nehalerm Bay during this century..
About this time the Spaniards introduced the burro to Fu Sang (America).
The only native People know to engage in slavery prior to European contact are some of the peoples from the Northwest Coast. Where or how they acquired this practice is unknown.
Amerigo Vespucci (1494-1512) an Italian is believed to have named America after himself. He is believed to be the first one to realize America was not part of Asia, as believed by most folks.
America is named this year by an obscure clergyman, Martin Waldseemuller, based on the discover Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) voyage to America in June 1497, who laid the foundation that the new discoveries are a continent and not islands on the way to India, in a book first published in 1507. It is believed the first maps of North America are based on old Chinese maps and Vancouver Island was called Colonia, Chinois. The Queen Charlotte Islands was originally called Colonie dei Chinesi. The Waldseemuller Gores map records both north and south America as well as the pacific ocean.
'Know that, on the right hand of the Indies, there is an island called California, very close to the side of the terrestrial paradise, and it is peopled by black women- without men among them, for they live in the manner of Amazons.' The Spanish Sergas.
Fortun Ximenez explores Baja California in Santa Cruz Bay, where he is killed.
Herando Cortes founded a colony in Santa Cruz (La Paz) California, but it would be abandoned in 1537.
Francisco de Ulloa explores the western coast of America and proves California is not an Island, as had been believed since 1510.
The Spanish are believed to be charting the Oregon Territory coast under orders of secrecy.
Francisco de Ulloa d-1640 sailed north to 30.5° with 3 ships and Ulloa's ship is lost and never found.
January 3: San Miguel Island off Santa Barbara, California, death Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, d-1542. His chief pilot Bartolome Ferrelo (Ferrel or Ferrer) took over the expedition and sailed north to the California-Oregon boarder at a latitude of 41 or 42 degrees, some suggest 44°. They returned to La Navidad, Mexico by April 14, 1543. They were ordered to find the Northwest Passage.
September 28: Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, d-1543, anchored his ship at San Miguel aka San Diego, California where he died.
September 28: Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) of Spainand Bartolome Ferrelo charted the California and Oregon Territory coasts. A vessel of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (d-1542) is abandoned in the San Miguel (San Diego) area at Point Loma. Others suggest they only reached Alta, California and not into Oregon until 1543.
January 3: San Diago, California death Juan Estevan Cabrillo, d-1543, while on expedition from Mexico.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475-1519) of Spain sailed to Eureka near the California/Oregon area.
Rats first showed up in North America this year.
The Spaniards in the Gulf of California reported seeing large Chinese junks at anchor. It is believed they traveled down the Pacific Northwest Coast. The Chinese are believed to have explored the Pacific coast since 1421 maybe earlier.
It is believed that Typhus from the Spanish swept America.
The Cossacks (Kossacks) explore the coast of Siberia to the ends of the continent to the Bering Strait. The were the first known to verify that Asia was separated from America.
Washington's, Mount St. Helens began almost nonstop eruptions that continued for a century.
A Portuguese sailor named Antonio Galvao visited China and reported stories of Chinese exploration voyages to British Columbia.
Some suggest the Spanish first named the Rocky Mountains as Sierra Nevadas this year.
It is believed that influenza and smallpox from the Spanish swept America.
It is believed that smallpox from the Spanish again swept America.
The first published map recognizing the Bering Strait (Streto de Anian) is published this year. Marco Polo first recorded the name Anian as a kingdom of Northeast Asia. Most sixteenth century mapmakers located the Anian Kingdom in the American North West.
Most Maps of this period show the Hawaii Islands.
Francis Drake (1540?-1596) an English slave trader and pirate (a common criminal) departed England to plunder Spanish shipping in the Pacific Ocean.
Spanish documents again record encountering Chinese ships on the California Coast. It is likely they traveled down the Northwest America coast.
Francis Drake (1540-1596) as a pirate criminal continued to prey on the Spanish up the western coast of South America. He plundered Valparaiso, Chile and other ports.
Francis Drake (1540?-1596) of England, a privateer and slave trader, visits the California coast (1578-79) encountering the Miwoks People. Some suggest he visited the coasts of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia. Others suggest he reached Alaska. How far north he went is still obscure but he stated the north west passage is a myth leading to speculation he reached Alaska. He sailed across the Pacific Ocean for home. Most historians discount this claim as nothing he describes represents reality. Some historians are not very kind saying Francis Drake claims are fantasies built on speculation derived from hypothesis based on the thinnest of intensively manipulated evidence. The conclusion is that Drake never reached the coast of British Columbia. Others claim he reached as far north as Oregon, claiming it for England.
A new book "Francis Drake in Nehalem Bay, 1579" is
released in 2009 by Garry D. Gitzen subtitled "setting the Historical
Record Straight". Some claim the 413 year old Molyneaux Globe
provides irrefutable proof that Francis Drake visited the coast of British
Some claimed Francois Drake (1540-1596) the deadly privateer, plundered Spanish galleons along the Pacific Coast and some say sailed to Washington State and it is speculated that he sighted Vancouver, Island. This is likely a hoax by the English to falsely make claim to north western America. Drake returned to England by September 26, 1580. The Spanish concluded he likely did not return to England via a Pacific route as he claimed. Drake was a self-serving man, loathed by many in London and around the world. Drake believed if you could make money, this was more important than anything. Most believed the furthest north he likely sailed is Rogue River, Oregon.
March: Francois Drake (1540-1596) an English pirate off Costa Rica, captured a Spanish ship with two Manila galleon pilots. He thereby acquired their navigation charts of the west coast of America. Using this stolen knowledge he sailed directly to previously discovered lands, likely boarder of northern California and Oregon. Some question if he actually traveled to this location or only claimed it based on the Spanish charts. His ships logs were lost, if as a pirate, he actually maintained a log.
April: Francois Drake (1540-1596) an English pirate raided the Mexican port of Guatulco.
May/June: Some call it the mythical expedition of Francois Drake (1540-1596) that he sailed to Washington State and it is speculated that he sighted Vancouver, Island. It is noteworthy that his maps did not resemble any know locations of the Pacific west Coast. He is claimed to have referred to the Oregon coast as "thicke and stinking fogges."
July 23: Francois Drake (1540-1596) an English pirate departed America and returned to Plymouth September 26, 1580.
Francisco de Gali (Galli or Gualle) d-1586 sailing from Japan is believed to have hit America at 43° before heading south. Some suggest the year was 1582 and he hit 57° N. and the mission was to find the Northwest Passage. 43° N is about Langlois, Oregon whereas 57° N is Sitka, B.C. north of Quadra's Islands.
July 13: The Amadas & Barlowe expedition sailed to Oregon Inlet, entering Pamlico Sound, they named the region Virginia in honor of the virgin queen. The area was peopled with Algonquian-speaking Peoples.
Francisco de Gali (Galli or Gualle) d-1586 is ordered to Manila then to reconnoiter down the coast of North America to find the Northwest Passage but he died 1586 in Manila.
November: Juan de Fuca, aka Apostolos Calerianos (1536-1602), on a return voyage from the Philippines and China on the Santa Anna is attacked by the English pirate Candish who stole his cargo.
Lorenzo Ferrer Moldanardo reported this year that he sailed across the top of Canada via Davis Strait to the land of Quivara in the Pacific.
The Clovis hypothesis is proposed by Jose de Acosta a Jesuit missionary to South America. This hypothesis created a scientific psychological barrier restricting thinking that American Peoples only existed since 10,000 B.C. This dark age thinking would last into the 21st century.
Fray Jose de Acosta a Spanish priest suggested the American-Indians are descendents from hunters who crossed from Northern Asia to America. The Church liked this hypothesis as it fits with the lost tribe of the Israel hypothesis. It also helps to explain how an advanced civilization could exist independent from the known world.
Joao de Gama a Portuguese navigator searched for the Land of Gama as reported discovered by an unknown Dutch Captain.
Juan de Fuca, aka Apostolos Calerianos or (Ioannis Phokas of Valerianos) (1536-1602), a Greek pilot, others suggest he was a German, but was sailing for Spain, or more correctly the Viceroy of Mexico, sailed the Juan de Fuca Straits encountering the Cowichan, Nootka, Songish and Stalos Natives of British Columbia. It is also claimed he sailed through the Bering Strait to the Arctic Ocean. This seems an execration as it is believed he only reached 47° & 48° north. It was claimed he had discovered the Strait of Anian (Juan de Fuca Straits) that he believed linked the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Northwest Passage). His claim was rejected by many researchers while others believe he sailed the Juan de Fuca Strait and discovered British Columbia claiming it for Spain, calling it New Spain. It can also be stated he discovered Quadra's Island (Vancouver Island) and Washington Territory. Those who discount his claim refer to his claims of seeing gold, silver, pearle and other things, like Nova Spania, as recorded by Michel Lok's in 1625. He called B.C. Nova Spania. He claimed to have sailed to 47 degrees off the coast of Washington and at 48 degrees observed a broad inlet trended to the eastward (Strait of Juan de Fuca) which he sailed up for 20 days and made frequent landings. Few serious researchers dispute his claims. It is noteworthy that Captain James Cook (1728-1779) had Fica's maps and descriptions with bearings stated the straits did not exist. Later Russian maps would hint at the Juan de Fuca Strait.
October 29: Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno (Sebastiao Rodrigues Cermenho) was ordered to survey the coast of California from the Oregon border to Mexico on his trip from the Philippines to find a suitable port. Francisco de Bolanos was his pilot. He sighted land November 4 at 42 degrees and proceeded south to San Francisco Bay which was actually Drake's Bay. His ship was destroyed but he continued to chart with a smaller ship.
November 5: Sebastian Cermenho (Cermenon) a Portuguese who sailed for Spain set sail from the Philippines to California, running aground in San Fancisco Bay later renamed Drakes Bay. They built a smaller boat and sailed to Mexico charting the coast from 41 degrees to 30 degrees, as they went.
Sepastan (Sabastian or Sebastin) Vizcaino (1550-1615) of Spain sails up the west coast of North America but it is believed he only reached California.